When people ask me whether the progress of science is more compatible with theism or atheism, I offer the following four basic pieces of scientific evidence that are more compatible with theism than atheism.
Here are the four pieces of evidence best explained by a Creator/Designer:
- the kalam argument from the origin of the universe
- the cosmic fine-tuning (habitability) argument
- the biological information in the first replicator (origin of life)
- the sudden origin of all of the different body plans in the fossil record (Cambrian explosion)
And I point to specific examples of recent discoveries that confirm those four arguments. Here are just a few of them:
- An explanation of 3 of the 6 experimental evidences for the Big Bang cosmology (From an article from Caltech)
- Examples of cosmic fine-tuning to allow the existence of conscious, embodied life (From the New Scientist)
- Evidence that functional protein sequences are beyond the reach of chance, (from Doug Axe’s JMB article)
- Evidence showing that Ediacaran fauna are not precursors to the Cambrian fossils, (from the journal Nature)
Atheists will typically reply to the recent scientific discoveries that overturned their speculations like this:
- Maybe the Big Bang cosmology will be overturned by the Big Crunch/Bounce so that the universe is eternal and has no cause
- Maybe there is a multiverse: an infinite number of unobservable, untestable universes which makes our finely-tuned one more probable
- Maybe the origin of life could be the result of chance and natural processes
- Maybe we will find a seamless chain of fossils that explain how the Cambrian explosion occurred slowly, over a long period time
Ever heard any of these responses?
Below I list some resources to help you to respond to the four responses of atheists to the experimental data.
1) The Big Crunch/Bounce has been disproved theoretically and experimentally.
Nature 302, 505 – 506 (07 April 1983); doi:10.1038/302505a0
The impossibility of a bouncing universe
ALAN H. GUTH* & MARC SHER†
*Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
†Department of Physics, University of California, Irvine, California 92717, USA
Petrosian1 has recently discussed the possibility that the restoration of symmetry at grand unification in a closed contracting Robertson–Walker universe could slow down and halt the contraction, causing the universe to bounce. He then went on to discuss the possibility that our universe has undergone a series of such bounces. We disagree with this analysis. One of us (M.S.) has already shown2 that if a contracting universe is dominated by radiation, then a bounce is impossible. We will show here two further results: (1) entropy considerations imply that the quantity S (defined in ref. 1 and below), which must decrease by ~1075 to allow the present Universe to bounce, can in fact decrease by no more than a factor of ~2; (2) if the true vacuum state has zero energy density, then a universe which is contracting in its low temperature phase can never complete a phase transition soon enough to cause a bounce.